Howto make USB BOOT Drives #3 [END]

I should add, that if you want to re-use a USB drive that has been used like this, you should wipe it with dd (overwrite with zeros), otherwise grub-install doesn't want to write into the mbr area, because it recognizes the CD file system, iso9660. (You need not wipe it before cloning.)
ahmadnurhadirmw - Wipe the CD file system
I should add, that if you want to re-use a USB drive that has been used like this, you should wipe it with dd (overwrite with zeros), otherwise grub-install doesn't want to write into the mbr area, because it recognizes the CD file system, iso9660. (You need not wipe it before cloning.)

You can use the shell-script also for this task and wipe the whole drive, 'wipe-whole-device', but often it is enough to wipe the first megabyte of the drive, 'wipe-1'.
sudo -H mkusb wipe
It is very important that you wipe your intended target drive and nothing else. It will be completely wiped, not even PhotoRec can do anything after that operation. But there are other (and better) tools to wipe an entire HDD or SSD for example hdparm or DBAN.

And after that you can use gparted to make a new partition table (for example MBR) and suitable partition(s) for example FAT32 with boot and lba flags.

mkusb 10.2 introduces a 'wipe menu' with several useful options

  • s "Standard: create MSDOS partition table with FAT32 partition"
  • b "Big drive: create GUID partition table with NTFS partition"
  • g "General: use 'gparted' to make partition table and partition(s)"
  • a "Advanced: create GUID partition table (skeleton for installing an OS)"
  • f "wipe the First megabyte (mibibyte)"
  • w "wipe the Whole device - consider other options except for special cases"

Several iso files can be cloned to working USB pendrives

ISO files that can be be cloned to working USB boot drives are called hybrid iso files.
There are mkusb PPAs for {Ubuntu, Kubuntu, Lubuntu, Xubuntu ...} {12.04 LTS, 14.04 LTS, 14.10, 15.04} alias {precise, trusty, utopic, vivid}. mkusb can make working USB installers also from the Ubuntu mini.iso. See this link.
New: You find working mini.iso files for 12.04 LTS (32-bits pae (and non-pae in a subdirectory)) at this link - precise-updates.
  • Arch
  • Bento
  • Bodhi
  • Clonezilla (mkusb-nox)
  • Debian Jessie
  • Fedora (uses simpler black & white menus because zenity lacks support for html) (live only)
  • Knoppix (needed treatment with isohybrid)
  • Linux Mint
  • LXLE
  • Mageia (live only)
  • openSUSE (live only)
  • ToriOS
  • Webconverger
while some other iso files did not work (although they make good CD boot disks). It is often possible to convert such an iso file to a hybrid iso with the following command
isohybrid downloaded-file.iso
It converts the iso in-place (the file is overwritten), so make a copy before you run isohybrid if you want to keep the original file untouched. See the following link

http://gparted-forum.surf4.info/view...d=30798#p30798

Complete install to USB

I also installed Lubuntu to a 16 GB USB pendrive, a complete install, like to a HDD. It was a little tricky with the swap partition, so now I know, why people advice, that you should disconnect the internal drive before doing it. This pendrive is truly portable, and probably better than a persistent live system. Please avoid proprietary drivers, if you want portability! There are several compressed image files, that were made from such installed systems, and they can be installed with mkusb. See the following links,

help.ubuntu.com/community/Installation/UEFI-and-BIOS
AskUbuntu: Boot Ubuntu from external drive

Booting USB drives with grub2 and iso files 'grub-n-iso' 

64-bit versions work only in 64-bit computers. 32-bit versions work in 32-bit and 64-bit computer (with BIOS, but not with UEFI, unless you use the methods described in the following paragraph).

The 'grub-n-iso' method uses grub2 to boot from an iso file, so once you have such a USB pendrive, you can boot most Intel and AMD computers that can run a 32-bit system (except very old non-PAE systems, systems with too low RAM, and systems with non-compatible hardware). The 'grub-n-iso' method can be used to create multi-boot USB pendrives by selecting iso file to boot from in the grub menu.

You can use the shell-script mkusb also for this task, to clone a compressed image from a file file.img.gz to a USB drive. You can download such files from http://phillw.net/isos/linux-tools/uefi-n-bios/

mkusb can make persistent live drives

A modified 'grub-n-iso' method is used, when mkusb creates persistent live drives. See details at mkusb/persistent

One pendrive for all PC (Intel/AMD) computers - Ubuntu 64-bit and Lubuntu 32-bit

The following four systems are downloaded as compressed image files and installed via mkusb
1. One pendrive for all PC (Intel/AMD) computers - Ubuntu 64-bit and Lubuntu 32-bit
There are methods now to make 32-bit Ubuntu family operating systems boot in UEFI mode via grub and iso files, 'grub-n-iso'. This makes it possible to make a USB pendrive with persistence, that is very portable between different computers
2. A smaller and simpler pendrive for all PC (Intel/AMD) computers - 'grub-n-iso' - Lubuntu 32-bit
3. Multiboot pendrive system for all PC (Intel/AMD) computers
4. Make persistent live drives with casper-rw and home-rw partitions New 2018-04-30M: a shellscript developed within the 'grub-n-iso' method, mk-persistent-live_with_home-rw.

The system with compressed image files makes it easy for a beginner to install, but it is rather inflexible. So I made a shell-script, that does the main part of the work with the help of a couple of files for the configuration of the booting system. See this link
Build your own single boot or multiboot pendrive for all PC (Intel/AMD) computers

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